Steven Pfaff and Michael Hechter. The Genesis of Rebellion: Governance, Grievance, and Mutiny in the Age of Sail
The Age of Sail has long fascinated readers, writers, and the general public. Herman Melville, Joseph Conrad, Jack London et al. treated ships at sea as microcosms; Petri dishes in which larger themes of authority, conflict and order emerge. In this fascinating book, Pfaff and Hechter explore mutiny as a manifestation of collective action and contentious politics. The authors use narrative evidence and statistical analysis to trace the processes by which governance failed, social order decayed, and seamen mobilized. Their findings highlight the complexities of governance, showing that it was not mere deprivation, but how seamen interpreted that deprivation, which stoked the grievances that motivated rebellion. Using the Age of Sail as a lens to examine topics still relevant today – what motivates people to rebel against deprivation and poor governance – The Genesis of Rebellion: Governance, Grievance, and Mutiny in the Age of Sail helps us understand the emergence of populism and rejection of the establishment.
Whereas rational choice theory has enjoyed considerable success in economics and political science, due to its emphasis on individual behavior sociologists have long doubted its capacity to account for non-market social outcomes. Whereas they have conceded that rational choice theory may be an appropriate tool to understand strictly economic phenomena – that is, the kinds of social interactions that occur in the gesellschaft– many sociologists have contended that the theory is wholly unsuitable for the analysis of the kinds of social interactions in the gemeinschaft – such as those occurring in families, in social groups of all kinds, and in society at large. In a variety of non-technical chapters, Rational Choice Sociology shows that a sociological version of rational choice theory indeed can make valuable contributions to the analysis of a wide variety of non-market outcomes, including those concerning social norms, family dynamics, crime, rebellion, state formation and social order.
This book argues that alien rule can become legitimate to the degree that it provides governance that is both effective and fair. Governance is effective to the degree that citizens have access to an expanding economy and an ample supply of culturally appropriate collective goods. Governance is fair to the degree that rulers act according to the strictures of procedural justice. These twin conditions help account for the legitimation of alien rulers in organizations of markedly different scale.The book applies these principles to the legitimation of alien rulers in states (the Republic of Genoa, nineteenth- and twentieth-century China, and modern Iraq), colonies (Taiwan and Korea under Japanese rule), and occupation regimes, as well as in less encompassing organizations such as universities (academic receivership), corporations (mergers and acquisitions), and stepfamilies. Finally, it speculates about the possibility of an international market in governance services.
Already a standard in its first edition, this newly expanded and reorganized reader provides a compelling exploration of what arguably remains the single most important problem in social theory: the problem of social order. Contending that theory’s purpose in the social sciences lies in its ability to explain real-world phenomena, Theories of Social Order presents classic texts alongside contemporary theoretical extensions and recent empirical applications.
Social norms are rules that prescribe what people should and should not do given their social surroundings and circumstances. Norms instruct people to keep their promises, to drive on the right, or to abide by the golden rule. They are useful explanatory tools, employed to analyze phenomena as grand as international diplomacy and as mundane as the rules of the road. But our knowledge of norms is scattered across disciplines and research traditions, with no clear consensus on how the term should be used. Research on norms has focused on the content and the consequences of norms, without paying enough attention to their causes. Social Norms reaches across the disciplines of sociology, economics, game theory, and legal studies to provide a well-integrated theoretical and empirical account of how norms emerge, change, persist, or die out. Social Norms opens with a critical review of the many outstanding issues in the research on norms: When are norms simply devices to ease cooperation, and when do they carry intrinsic moral weight? Do norms evolve gradually over time or spring up spontaneously as circumstances change?
Nationalism has become the most prevalent source of political conflict and violence in the world. Scholarship has provided scant guidance about the prospects of containing the dark side of nationalism sits widely publicized excesses of violence, such as ethnic cleansing and genocide. Departing from the usual practice of considering only a few examples of nationalism drawn from a limited geographical and historical canvas, this book is based on fundamental theoretical ideas about the formation and solidarity of groups. Containing Nationalism offers a unified explanation of the dynamics of nationalism across the broad sweep of time and space. Among other things, it explains why nationalism is supported by specific forms of inequality between cultural groups, and why it is inclusive at some times and exclusive at others.
The Origin of Values Although values play a leading role in nearly every explanatory theory in the broad realm of the social and behavioral sciences, very little multidisciplinary research material on values is available. Addressing this need, the editors bring together distinguished social scientists, psychologists, and biologists who collaboratively explore fundamental questions about values: What are the determinants of social values, taboos, and ideologies? What are the determinants of individual values? What is the nature of motivations and rewards? Is there an evolutionary basis for the development of values?
This is the first book to present a synthesis of rational choice theory and sociological perspectives for the analysis of social institutions. The origin of social institutions is an old concern in social theory. Currently it has re-emerged as one of the most intensely debated issues in social science. Among economists and rational choice theorists, there is growing awareness that most, if not all, of the social outcomes that are of interest to explain are at least partly a function of institutional constraints. Yet the role of institutions is negligible both in general equilibrium theory and in most neoclassical economic models. There is a burgeoning substantive interest in institutions ranging from social movements, to formal organizations, to states, and even international regimes.
The Macrofoundations of Macrosociology A theory of group solidarity / by Michael Hechter Determinants of group cohesion in contemporary Japan / by Mary C. Brinton Normative and rational explanations of a classic case / by Debra Friedman A French political regionalism, 1849-1978 / by William Brustein Karl Polanyi’s social theory / by Michael Hechter A theory of institutional change and the economic history of the Western world / by Douglass C. North The predatory theory of rule / by Margaret Levi Why workers strike / by Debra Friedman.
Internal Colonialism Recent years have seen a resurgence of separatist sentiments among national minorities in many industrial societies, including the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada and Switzerland. In 1997, the Scottish and Welsh both set up their own parliamentary bodies, while the tragic events in Northern Ireland continue to be a reminder of the Irish problem. These phenomena call into question widely accepted social theories which assume that ethnic attachments in a society will wane as industrialization proceeds. This book presents the social basis of ethnic identity, and examines changes in the strength of ethnic solidarity in the United Kingdom in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In addition to its value as a case study, the work also has important comparative implications, for it suggests that internal colonialism of the kind experienced in the British Isles has its analogues in the histories of other industrial societies.
Special Issues of Journals
Legitimacy in the Modern World, editor. American Behavioral Scientist, 53, 3 (November 2009)
Theoretical Implications of the Demise of State Socialism, co-editor (with Ivan Szelenyi). Special issue of Theory & Society 23, 2 (April 1994)
Symposium on Prediction in the Social Sciences, editor. American Journal of Sociology 100, 6 (May 1995)
Internal Colonialism in Comparative Perspective, co-editor (with John Stone). Special issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2, 3 (1979)
Selected Articles and Chapters
Sean Mueller & Michael Hechter. “Centralization through decentralization? The crystallization of social order in the European Union”. Territory, Politics, Governance. (2019)
Patrick Underwood, Steven Pfaff and Michael Hechter. “Threat, Deterrence, and Penal Severity: An Analysis of Flogging in the Royal Navy, 1740–1820.” Social Science History 42, Fall (2018): 411–439
“Norms and the Evolution of Social Order.” Social Research: An International Quarterly, 85 (1) (2018): 23-51
“Center-Periphery Bargaining in the Age of Democracy” David S. Siroky, Sean Mueller and Michael Hechter Swiss Political Science Review 22(4) (2016): 439-453
“The Legitimacy of Alien Rulers,” Swiss Political Science Review 22:4 (2016) (with Christine Horne, Pazi Ben-Nun Bloom, Kyle Irwin and Dan Miodownik). SPSR
“Ethnicity, Class, and Civil War: The Role of Hierarchy, Segmentation, and Cross cutting Cleavages,”Civil Wars. (2016) (with David Siroky).
“Cultural Legacies and Political Preferences: The Failure of Separatism in the Swiss Jura,” European Political Science Review. 9:2 (2017) (with David Siroky and Sean Mueller) EPSR first view
“Grievances and the Genesis of Rebellion: Mutiny in the Royal Navy, 1740 to 1820.” American Sociological Review 81: 1 (2016): 165-189 (with Steven Pfaff and Patrick Underwood). ASR first view
“The Problem of Solidarity in Insurgent Collective Action: The Nore Mutiny of 1797,” Social Science History, 40(2) (2016): 247-270 (with Steven Pfaff and Katie Corcoran)
“The Differential Demand for Indirect Rule: Evidence from the North Caucasus,” Post-Soviet Affairs 29 (2013) 268-286 (with David Siroky and Valeriy Dzutsev)
“Alien Rule and Its Discontents.” American Behavioral Scientist, 53, 3 (2009): 289-310
“The Dilemma of Social Order in Iraq.” Pp. 102-112 in Huan Liu, John Salerno and Michael J. Young eds., Social Computing, Behavior Modeling, and Prediction II. New York: Springer (with Nika Kabiri). 2009
“Resistance to Alien Rule in Taiwan and Korea.” Nations and Nationalism 15, 1 (2009): 36-59 (with Ioana Emy Matesan and Chris Hale)
“The Rise and Fall of Normative Control.” Accounting, Organizations and Society. 33: 6 (2008): 663-676
“Attaining Social Order in Iraq.” Pp. 43-74 in Stathis Kalyvas, Ian Shapiro, and Tarek Masoud, eds., Order, Conflict and Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (with Nika Kabiri), 2008
“A Theory of the Value of Grandchildren.” Rationality and Society, 20: 1 (2008): 31-63 (with Debra Friedman and Derek Kreager)
“Prediction versus Explanation in the Measurement of Values,” European Sociological Review 21, 2 (2005): 91-108 (with Hyojoung Kim and Justin Baer)
“From Class to Culture.” American Journal of Sociology, 110, 2 (2004): 400-445
“National Self-Determination: The Emergence of an International Norm.” Pp. 186-233 in Michael Hechter and Karl-Dieter Opp, eds., Social Norms. New York: Russell Sage Foundation (with Elizabeth Borland), 2001
“Solidarity, Sociology of,” pp. 14588-14591 in Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier Science, 2001
“Do Values Matter? An Analysis of Advance Directives for Medical Treatment,” European Sociological Review 15, 4 (December 1999): 405-30 (with James Ranger-Moore, Guillermina Jasso and Christine Horne)
“The Debate on Historical Sociology: Rational Choice Theory and its Critics,” American Journal of Sociology 104 (1998): 785-816, (with Edgar Kiser)
“Religion and Rational Choice Theory.“ Pp. 147-59 in Lawrence A. Young, ed., Rational Choice Theories of Religion. London: Routledge, 1997
“Explaining Nationalist Violence,“ Nations and Nationalism 1,1 (1995): 53-68
“Introduction: Reflections on Historical Prophecy in the Social Sciences,” American Journal of Sociology 100, 6 (1995): 1520-1527
“Theoretical Implications of the Demise of State Socialism.” Theory and Society 23, 2 (1994): 155-167
“The Role of Values in Rational Choice Theory.” Rationality and Society, 6, 3 (1994): 318-333
“A Theory of the Value of Children.” Demography, 31, 3 (1994): 375-401 (with Debra Friedman and Satoshi Kanazawa)
“Group Solidarity and Social Order in Japan.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 5, 4 (1993): 455-493 (with Satoshi Kanazawa)
“The Insufficiency of Game Theory for the Resolution of Real-World Collective Action Problems,” Rationality and Society 4, 1 (1992): 33-40
“The Role of General Theory in Comparative-Historical Sociology,” American Journal of Sociology, 97, 1 (1991): 1-30 (with Edgar Kiser)
“Regional Modes of Production and Patterns of State Formation in Western Europe,”American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 85, No. 5 (1980), pp. 1061-1094 (with William Brustein)
“Karl Polanyi’s Social Theory: A Critique,” Politics & Society, (1981) pp. 399-429
“Group Formation and the Cultural Division of Labor,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 84, No. 2 (1978), pp. 293-318